That was going to be my next question - what are the app settings and do any impact this.
So @LRVinNC you seem to be the only one that has an actual app that this works in...and now we know the answer and an answer for @gh1 - turn on Formula-level Error Management!
Great sleuth work!!
_____________________________________________________________________________________ Digging it? - Click on the Thumbs Up. Solved your problem? - Click on Accept as Solution. Others seeking the same answers will be happy you did.
As you discovered, enabling the "Formula-level error management" Experimental feature was the fix - for all my column types.
As this is an experimental setting, I really hope PowerApps makes this a core feature in the future. A little unsettling seeing the disclosure that this feature could break or be removed at anytime. I would hate to lose this functionality. But for now, I will take it as a win.
All that to say, if the functionality were to be lost for any reason, we should expect to be able to fall back to the workaround. It may be more complex, but it isn't bending the platform to accomplish these updates. Fingers crossed!