I have been trying to figure out what i am doing wrong in my App. I am importing a list greater than 500 tiems and getting the blue line error "Part of this formala cannot be evaluated remotely ****". I have discovered on this forum this is to help maintain performance on an app, and any data source should be filtered to less than 500 items.
I have done this using the formula below attached to the items section of a gallary.
(just technicaly from my experience, its is limitation both PowerApps and SharePoint .. (because on sharepoint yes it is possible to call CAML query with > and <.. but via another technology, not PowerApps)
I read again your usage and I would do:
ClientSide: DownLoad for example all data from sharepoint and order by dateTime using SortByColumns ... then i would run localy RemoveIf on collection to delete records with older date then 2017.08.01 (wrong format sorry)
ServerSide: adjust server side ... add workflow on sharepoint online with "If field Date >= 2017.08.01" set "FilterColumn1" to 1 ... and now, yes it is possible to make Filter with (FilterColumn=1) which allow user to download data via delegation (serverSide execution, just results are retrieveing via network)