Sorry. I thought you mentioned that "Items" is not available.
Let's try to fix the second problem then. Please assign the following formula to your Button.OnSelect property:
Set(col, Filter(capacitacoes_dados_teste, pesquisa.Text in colaborador))
And then set the DataTable control Items property to "col" (with no quotes).
Sorry for focusing on that, but when you say "single line texts", do you mean that the the "colaborador" column is of type "Text" in SharePoint?
The reason I'm asking is because you should be able to use your formula on the text field. I just tried that on my test list and cannot reproduce this issue. The first screenshot below is from my SharePoint list and the second one is from the PowerApps.
I do get a delegation warning (because the "in" is not a delegable operator in SharePoint) but I do not get the error that you see.
Can you please confirm the types?
Because of any reason i don't know, i couldn't check the column "colaborador" type. So i added a mirror of this column, called "colaborador_1". When i try to filter this column, i get this error:
If you added a new column, you will have to either:
1. Refresh your data source in PowerApps (right click on the "..." menu from View/Data Sources/Data/capacitacoes_dados_teste and select "Refresh")
2. Remove the current capacitacoes_dados_teste source and add it again.
That error does not indicate any specific reasons. Please try the following:
1. Create a brand new test application
2. Add your SharePoint "capacitacoes_dados_teste" list
3. Add a button control, text input control and a data table control
4. Apply the suggested formulas.
This configuration is pretty simple and must work. This will indicate if the issue is with your previous application or with your SharePoint list.